China Compulsory Certification(CCC) system requires manufacturers of products in more than 130 categories to obtain approval before launching, importing and using the product for commercial purposes in China. CCC testand certification can only be performed by testing laboratories and certificate authority recognized by Certification and Accreditation Administration of People's Republic of China(CNCA), and self-certification is not permitted. It is a system in which all products distributed in China and all products and parts exported to China that is comply with compulsory certificate items should essentially obtain safety and quality certification according to International Electronics Standards Association(IEC) and Chinese national standards, and only products receiving CCC marks can be sold in China. China's safety and quality certification system was operated in dualistic way, applying separate certification for domestic products and imports, but it was integrated into the certification system of only CCC mark for improvement of the certification system with entry into the WTO as a momentum.
It is mainly a safety and quality certification system for products such as electric and electronic devices, and automobiles, and items exported to China must receive a CCC mark from the Chinese certificate authority. Companies that established local factories in China must obtain CCC Mark instead of existing CCEE Mark to sell their products in China.
China Quality Certification(CQC)
Spontaneous product certification system was developed within the scope of the International IECEE CB Scheme and contains more than 500 additional product categories. CQC certified products are recognized as complying with relevant standards for quality, safety, product performance and environmental considerations. Some CQC certified products can get further test waiver for CCC certification.
China's technical standards start with GB, and largely comply with IEC's technical standards, but have a Chinese national deviations.
PSE mark system is a certificate system following Denan, a new form of revision to the Electric Devices Control Act (Dentori Mark, T-Mark) which has been applied to electric and electronic products in Japan.
Energy-Related Products (ErP) Directive
- The purpose is to control the manufacture, sale of electric devices and to control the occurrence of hazards and obstacles caused by electric devices by promoting nongovernment’s autonomous activities on ensuring the safety of electric devices.
- Those who manufacture or import and sell electric products by exporting to Japan should be certified for relevant products and the importer should report them to the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
- Object to certification are divided into certain electric products (116 items) and the other electric products (341 items), and depending on the two categories, the certification procedures and requirements are different.
- In Article 9 of Electrical Appliances Safety Act (Conformance Test of certain electric devices), certain electric devices should have conformance test by a registered testing agency following the type of electrical appliances, and their certificates should be granted and preserved.
- For electrical appliances other than certain electric devices (341 items), PSE mark can be attached if the test report proves that the technical standard is satisfied without the certification procedure of the registered testing agency.
Taiwan's Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has issued the Measures Governing Registration of Product Certification (RPC). RPC includes EMC and Safety. RPC concept is based on Conformity Assessment Procedures of 93/465/EEC directive Annex, the EU Directive.
Taiwan Product Testing Act has been enacted to protect consumer rights and plan normal development of the economy in accordance with the safety, hygiene, environmental protection and other technical regulations and standards of products. Following the above Act, agricultural, industrial and mining products that are manufactured, produced and processed in Taiwan and products exported and imported should be tested under this Act. The organization of this system is the Bureau of Standards, Metrology and Inspection (BSMI) under the Ministry of Economic Affairs(MOEA) of Taiwan. BSMI certification is divided into registration of product certification (RPC), type approval, and declaration of self-conformation declaration (Doc), and BSMI mark is attached depending on the type of certification. Within RPC, it is divided into seven Compatibility Assessment modules, and BSMI under MOEA determines the application module for each product. Details of the module are given in the BSMI.
What is stated in BSMI
- Module I (Internal Control Module): Products with relatively low risk due to simple design
- Module II (Type Testing Module): Fixed and Bulk Production
- Module III (Conformance Declaration Module)
- Module IV to Module VI : Quality system related module
- Module VII (Factory Audit Module): Products that require minimal quality elements to ensure conformance, such as products of small manufacturers.
Previously, the export certification system was called International Conformity Certification Program(ICCP) and it required (International Certification of Conformity(CoC) for products imported into the country. In November 1995, the ICCP was introduced by Saudi Arabian Standards Organization(SASO) and Ministry of Commerce & Industry (MOCI), and applied to the first 76 item categories. In August 1998, ICCP excepted food(separate regulation applied) by simplify applied items, and repaired to 66 categories with the addition of toys and entertainment equipment, and added auto parts, gas cooking equipment, and mobile phones and operated for a total of 69 categories in August 2001 again. The certificates were administered byc Intertek Testing Services, designated by Saudi government, under ICCP.
However, in August 2004, the program was drastically modified under Article 6386 of MoCI, expanding the applied items to all consumer products except for four items: medical equipment, medical supplies, food and military-related products, abolished ICCP and instead introduced a new Conformity Certificate and the primary action agency was also high-transferred from SASO to MoCI and is currently in operation.
Under the new regulations in May 2006, Saudi government changed the system to include CoC issued by a agency designated by exporting countries. Technical Standard Agency of the Ministry of Knowledge Economy decided to conclude the KATS-SASO MOU in June 2008 after consulting with SASO and accepted certificates issued by certificate authority of the Korean Agency for Technology and Standards designated by KOLAS. And Technical Standard Agency designated a certificate authority and notified Saudi Arabia of the details of the designation of the conformation certificate issuing agency in December 2008.
The International Certification System (ICCP), a Saudi import inspection system for imported products, has been pointed out as aobstaclefor expanding trade among countries and putting pressure on foreign exporters in terms of costs and procedures. However, the Saudi cling to their original position that the certification system is not an import regulation, as it is related to the health of the people or the security of the nation rather than to the import regulation and applied to all countries without discrimination.
Forced items designated by Bureau of Indian Standards(BIS) should obtain product certification when exported to India, and only products attaching ISI marks are available for sale in the Indian market.
Energy-Related Products (ErP) Directive
- Product certification system of BIS is designed to ensure the quality, safety, and reliability of products to be used by end consumers, and as an ISI certification mark, known as the Standard Mark, it acts as a guarantee that the product is suitable for the specifications of the product when it is attached to a product.
- Some items must be certified by BIS to be imported.
- Compliance with certificates should be followed through regular sampling tests extracted from markets and factories as well as frequent inspections.
- BIS operates Product Certification Scheme under the Bureau of Indian Standards Act 1986 enacted by congress.
- The ISI, the predecessor of the BIS, issued the ISI mark, a quality mark that has been operated since 1995, and those who obtain the certification can use it in the Indian market.
- Product certification system of BIS is based fundamentally on ISO Guide 28(General rules for a model third party certification system for products) as an autonomous system, and the requirements for product certification system operation are mostly consistent with ISO Guide 65(General requirements for bodies operating product certification systems).
* India has not imposed any restrictions on imports since 2001, it lifted all existing import quantity regulations, making it easy for anyone to import most items after a certain small set of procedures for Open General License(OGL).
It is Singapore's representative consumer protection system aimed to prevent safety accidents in both consumer and public places in advance by forcing consumers to conduct safety checks and prohibiting the sale of products that fail to meet inspection standards. In other words, it is a compulsory inspection system under which items subject to safety inspection designating products as 'controlled goods' and controlled goods can be sold and advertised in Singapore only after they pass safety inspections and are registered with the authorities. Evidence laws are consumer protection laws and regulations. Those who want to advertise, exhibit, or sell items designated as controlled items (such as importers, retailers, manufacturers, etc.) can only advertise, exhibit or sell those products by issuing a Certificate of Conformity (COC) by Conformity Assessment Bodie(CAB) and registering the products on Spring Singapore. Penalties will be imposed for violations. Singaporean government has been designating controlled items in steps since 1992, 45 product lines including electricity, electronics, gas appliances and accessories are classified and managed as controlled items. The controlled items include adapters, LPG systems, microwaves, electric irons, gas cookers, hairdryers, television, video player devices, video cassette recorders, fans, high-frequency equipment, hot water appliances, kettles, refrigerators, rice cookers, air conditioners, vacuum cleaners, washing machines, and more than 35,000 controlled items are registered in Spring Singapore.
Singapore has been implementing a consumer protection law called the Lemon Act since September 1, 2012. While they expected the Act to play a positive role in creating conditions for people to trade easily by strengthening consumer rights and raising the level of sellers, some say the law should be refined more because of ambiguous expressions such as ‘in a reasonable period’ and ‘causing significant inconvenience’ in legal clauses.